Project echo is a telementoring program which connects primary care practitioners with multidisciplinary teams of specialists. This model is designed to improve the care of patients with complex medical conditions, particularly in areas that are rural and unserved.

The ECHO model was developed by the University of New Mexico in 2003, with a focus on treating hepatitis C patients who are in populations that are not served and prisons. Since then the ECHO model has been replicated in a variety of clinical areas, including asthma, chronic pain and diabetes. The ECHO model is supported by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality as well as the GE Foundation, and the Leona M. and Harry B Helmsley Charitable Trust.

During ECHO sessions Participants present de-identified cases and engage in group discussions with the experts in the field via videoconferencing technology. In this «all-teach learning, all-learn» format, the experts share their experiences and knowledge to help answer questions, provide feedback, and offer suggestions.

The ECHO model also permits remote monitoring of patient outcomes. Specialists from the University of New Mexico follow the treatment plans of each community provider to ensure that their patients receive the highest quality of care. The specialists can make mid-course adjustments if the patient is not adhering to the prescribed therapy. This helps to avoid treatment failure and increases the likelihood of a positive outcome. Additionally, specialists can utilize the ECHO system to track their data and spot gaps in treatment. This information is given to local physicians to assist them in better serving their patients.